NEW MEXICO JUNIOR COLLEGE

Fundamentals of Nuclear Science

SYLLABUS

- GENERAL COURSE INFORMATION
- COURSE DESCRIPTION
3 Credit Hours This course introduces students to fundamentals of nuclear science and nuclear physics and reactor theory. This course covers atomic physics, nuclear reactions, and detection of radiation.

- COURSE RATIONALE / TRANSFERABILITY
This course will meet the requirements of the Energy Technology Degree at New Mexico Junior College; however, it is important to check with the institution to which you are planning to transfer to determine transferability. All students are encouraged to keep the course syllabus, as it will help determine the transferability of this course credit to another institution.

- REQUIRED / SUGGESTED COURSE MATERIALS
**Required:**

[provided by the instructor in the Course Materials]*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK Classical Physics*DOE-HDBK-1010-92*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK Nuclear Physics & Reactor Theory*DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 (Volumes 1&2)**Using LockDown Browser and a Webcam for Online Exams**

This course requires the use of LockDown Browser and a webcam for online exams. The webcam can be built into your computer or can be the type that plugs in with a USB cable. Watch this video (http://www.respondus.com/products/lockdown-browser/student-movie.shtml) to get a basic understanding of LockDown Browser and the webcam feature.**You will be required to pay a one-time fee to use the webcam feature of Respondus Lockdown Browser. Once paid, you will be able to use the webcam for the remainder of the course. If you are on scholarship, this fee should be paid from your scholarship funds.**

You must download and install LockDown Browser from this link:

(https://nmjc.instructure.com/courses/1273417/modules/items/13487969)

Note: Don't download a copy of LockDown Browser from elsewhere on the Internet; those versions won't work at our institution.

To take an online test, start LockDown Browser and navigate to the exam. (You won't be able to access the exam with a standard web browser.) For additional details on using LockDown Browser, review this Student Quick Start Guide (http://www.respondus.com/products/lockdown-browser/guides.shtml#student).

Finally, when taking an online exam, follow these guidelines:

• Ensure you're in a location where you won't be interrupted.

• Turn off all mobile devices, phones, etc.

• Clear your desk of all external materials — books, papers, other computers, or devices.

• Remain at your desk or workstation for the duration of the test.

• If a webcam is required, make sure it is plugged in or enabled before starting LockDown Browser.

• LockDown Browser will prevent you from accessing other websites or applications; you will be unable to exit the test until all questions are completed and submitted.

• If a webcam is required, you will be recorded during the test to ensure you're using only permitted resources.**Suggested:**

. This resource has been adopted by New Mexico Junior College as the common reference book for students to use for writing assignments in their courses. This book is available at the NMJC bookstore.*Harbrace Essentials with Resources Writing in Disciplines*2nd Edition by Cheryl Glenn & Loretta Gray (ISBN-10: 1285451813)

NOTE: Generally no books are available at the NMJC book store for the Energy Technology degree. If a text is required a link will be provided in the course syllabus. When DOE Handbooks or Modules are required they will be provided in the course.You can buy your books online at the NMJC Bookstore.

- GRADING POLICY
Students attending New Mexico Junior College will be evaluated according to the following grading scale:

90 - 100% = A 80 - 89% = B 70 - 79% = C 60 - 69% = D 0 - 59% = F

This course is graded on a point system with the final grade based on a percentage of the total points of all exams/quizzes and written assignments.

**Grading is based on a weighted system as outlined below:**

9 Quizzes (820 points) [Weighted together as one grade] (20% of total grade)

6 Group Discussions (125 points) [Combined as one grade] (10% of total grade)

2 Written Papers (Written Discussion & Fukushima Paper) (100 points each)[Weighted together as one grade] (25% of total grade)

1 Written Report (100 points) (20% of total grade)

1 Final Exam (100 points) (25% of total grade)

Total: 1345 points**Response Time Frames:**

The instructor will respond to student e-mail within 24 hours on week days and 48 hours on weekends.

Grades for written assignments will generally be posted within a week of the due date if due mid-term or the day before final grades are submitted for end-of-term assignments.**Retrieving Grades from T-BirdWeb Portal**

Go to the New Mexico Junior College T-BirdWeb Portal login page. Please enter your User Identification Number (ID), which is your Banner ID, and your Personal Identification Number (PIN). When finished, click Login.**Tips for Success in Online Courses:**

1. Log in to class regularly.

2. Pay attention.

3. Take notes.

4. Keep up with readings and assignments.

5. Ask questions when you do not understand something.

6. Utilize your professor’s office hours and e-mail.

7. Read the text.

8. Adhere to the deadlines posted in the course outline. - INSTITUTIONAL STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
New Mexico Junior College’s institutional student learning outcomes represent the knowledge and abilities developed by students attending New Mexico Junior College. Upon completion students should achieve the following learning outcomes along with specific curriculum outcomes for respective areas of study:

- Communication
- Comprehend information to summarize, analyze, evaluate, and apply to a specific situation.
- Communicate in an accurate, correct, and understandable manner.
- Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
- Define a problem and arrive at a logical solution.
- Use appropriate technology and information systems to collect, analyze, and organize information.
- Apply critical thinking, analysis, and problem solving to data.
- Self and Community
- Analyze and reflect on the ethical dimensions of legal, social, and / or scientific issues.
- Communicate an awareness of a variety of perspectives of ethical issues.
- Interact with individuals and within groups with integrity and awareness of others’ opinions, feelings and values.

- DEPARTMENTAL STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Accurately solve problems using foundational mathematics, physical sciences, and energy technology concepts.

2. Demonstrate an understanding of environmental safety in regards to energy industry processes and procedures.

3. Conduct, analyze, and/or interpret real world scenarios and case studies or laboratory experiments.

4. Demonstrate effective oral and written communication skills using specific energy technology terminology.

5. Demonstrate knowledge of energy systems and operations.

- SPECIFIC COURSE STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Demonstrate an understanding of the basics of classical and nuclear physics, energy use, nuclear power, and nuclear fuel cycles. (DSLO 5)

2. Analyze the cause of different nuclear reactions. (DSLO 3)

- REQUIRED TECHNICAL COMPETENCIES AND EQUIPMENT
**Student Requirements**

If you have not already received login information for Canvas/T-BirdWeb Portal/E-mail, you will need to contact the Enrollment Management office at (575) 492-2546.Check first-time login page for instructions at www.nmjc.edu/distancelearning/coursescourseschedules/canvasinstructions.aspx.

**Canvas Assistance**- Review the Canvas Student Orientation.
- Call the Canvas helpdesk at (575) 399-2199 for assistance and have your course CRN (ex. 10023) and/or student ID number available.

You must have access, on a regular basis, to a computer that supports the Canvas minimum specifications and has an active connection to the Internet. See the minimum computer specification requirements at www.nmjc.edu/distancelearning/coursescourseschedules/Canvasinstructions.aspx.

- GENERAL/MISCELLANEOUS
**Students will be held responsible for the information on these pages.****Academic Honesty**

Each student is expected to maintain the highest standards of honesty and integrity in online academic and professional matters. The College reserves the right to take disciplinary action, up to and including dismissal, against any student who is found guilty of academic dishonesty or otherwise fails to meet these standards. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, dishonesty in quizzes, tests, or assignments; claiming credit for work not done or done by others; and nondisclosure or misrepresentation in filling out applications or other College records. Cheating or gaining illegal information for any type of graded work is considered dishonest and will be dealt with accordingly.**Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Information**

Any student requiring special accommodations should contact the Special Needs Student Services Coordinator at (575) 492-2576 or by e-mail at krueda@nmjc.edu.**Attendance Policy and Participation Expectations**

It is expected that you regularly log into class at least three times weekly and check your Canvas mail to ensure you have not missed any changes/updates. Students are expected to complete discussions/quizzes/tests/ assignments before deadlines expire.**Canvas Help**

If you experience difficulty with Canvas you may reach the Canvas Helpdesk at canvashelpdesk@nmjc.edu, or by calling the 24 hour helpdesk phone at (575) 399-2199.**Netiquette**

The professor is responsible for monitoring and evaluating student conduct and student behavior within the Canvas course. By registering for this class, the student is assumed to have entered into an agreement with New Mexico Junior College and the professor to log into the class regularly and to behave in an**appropriate**manner at all times. Disruptive behavior**may**result in the student being removed from the class and dropped for the semester. For comprehensive information on the common rules of netiquette and other online issues, please review the NMJC Online Student Handbook.**Online Learning Environment**

By participating in an online class, you undertake responsibility for your own progress and time management.- Pay attention to deadlines and do not forget them (keep a calendar if it helps).
- Carefully read and understand all assignments.
- Complete assignments according to posted instructions and notes. Do not just glance at an assignment before attempting to complete it (this is likely to result in a poor grade).
- Questions may be posed for clarification in the class discussion area or by sending an e-mail to your instructor.

**Plagiarism**

Offering the work of another as one’s own, without proper acknowledgment, is plagiarism; therefore, any student who fails to give credit for quotations or essentially identical expression of material taken from books, encyclopedias, magazines and other reference works, or from the themes, reports, or other writings of a fellow student, is guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism violates the academic honesty policy and is considered cheating.**Tutoring Assistance**

Free tutoring services are available to all NMJC students through Brainfuse and the Academic Success Center located at the Pannell Library on the 1st floor.**Withdrawal Policy**

The instructor has the right to drop any student who has failed to log on to Canvas for two weeks or more, but it is not guaranteed that the instructor will drop you. If the student chooses to stop attending a class, he/she should withdraw from the class by accessing your student account in the T-Bird Web Portal at www.nmjc.edu, or submitting the required paperwork to the Registrar’s Office by**5:00 p.m. on Thursday, April 18, 2019**. Failure to withdraw yourself from a course by this date may result in your receiving an “F” in the course. All students are encouraged to discuss their class status with the professor prior to withdrawing from the class. - ACADEMIC CALENDAR
- FINALS SCHEDULE
- COURSE OUTLINE
**COURSE TOPICS:**

WEEK 1

Course Information Module

Module 0: Getting Started

Syllabus Quiz

MODULE 1: Unit Systems & Vectors,*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK CLASSICAL PHYSICS*, Modules 1 & 2

MODULE 1 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given appropriate conversion tables, CONVERT between English and SI system units of measurement.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

DEFINE the three fundamental dimensions: length, mass, and time.

LIST standard units of the fundamental dimensions for each of the following systems:

a. International System of Units (SI)

b. English System

1.3 DIFFERENTIATE between fundamental and derived measurements.

1.4 Given appropriate conversion tables, CONVERT between English and SI units of length.

1.5 Given appropriate conversion tables, CONVERT between English and SI units of mass.

1.6 CONVERT time measurements between the following:

a. Years

b. Weeks

c. Days

d. Hours

e. Minutes

f. Seconds

FUNDAMENTAL DIMENSIONS

Fundamental Dimensions

Units

Unit Systems

Derived Measurements

Summary

UNIT CONVERSIONS

Conversion Factors

Unit Conversion

Steps for Unit Conversion

Summary

MODULE 2 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

Using vectors, DETERMINE the net force acting on an object.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 DEFINE the following as they relate to vectors:

a. Scalar quantity

b. Vector quantity

c. Vector component

d. Resultant

1.2 DETERMINE components of a vector from a resultant vector.

1.3 ADD vectors using the following methods:

a. Graphical

b. Component addition

c. Analytical

SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES

Scalar Quantities

Vector Quantities

Description of a Simple Vector

Examples of Vector Quantities

Summary

VECTOR IDENTIFICATION

In Written Materials

Graphic Representation

Graphic Representation of Vectors

Summary

VECTORS: RESULTANTS AND COMPONENTS

Resultant

Vector Components

Summary

GRAPHIC METHOD OF VECTOR ADDITION

Vector Addition

Methods Used to Add Vectors

Using the Graphic Method

Summary

COMPONENT ADDITION METHOD

An Explanation of Components

Using the Component Addition Method

Summary

ANALYTICAL METHOD OF VECTOR ADDITION

Review of Mathematical Functions

Using the Analytical Method

Summary**Group Discussion 1-1**

Module 1 Quiz 1: Units (Dimensions & Conversions)

Group Discussion 1-2

Module 1 Quiz 2: Scalar & Vector Quantities**WEEK 2**

MODULE 2: Force and Motion & Application of Newton’s Laws*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK CLASSICAL PHYSICS*, Modules 3 & 4

MODULE 3 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 APPLY Newton's laws of motion to a body.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 STATE Newton's first law of motion.

1.2 STATE Newton's second law of motion.

1.3 STATE Newton's third law of motion.

1.4 STATE Newton's law of universal gravitation.

1.5 DEFINE momentum.

1.6 EXPLAIN the conservation of momentum.

1.7 Using the conservation of momentum, CALCULATE the velocity for an object

(or objects) following a collision of two objects.

NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION

Summary

MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES

Momentum

Force and Momentum

Conservation of Momentum

Summary

MODULE 4 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

From memory, APPLY the principles of force to stationary or moving bodies.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 DEFINE the following:

a. Force

b. Weight

1.2 STATE the purpose of a free-body diagram.

1.3 Given all necessary information, CONSTRUCT a free-body diagram.

1.4 STATE the conditions necessary for a body to be in force equilibrium.

1.5 DEFINE the following:

a. Net force

b. Equilibrant

1.6 DEFINE the following:

a. Tensile force

b. Compressive force

c. Frictional force

1.7 EXPLAIN the difference between a static-friction force and a kinetic-friction force.

1.8 STATE two factors that affect the magnitude of the friction force.

1.9 EXPLAIN the difference between centripetal force and centrifugal force.

FORCE AND WEIGHT

Introduction

Force

Weight

Summary

FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS

Constructing a Free-Body Diagram

Summary

FORCE EQUILIBRIUM

Net Force

Equilibrium

Summary

TYPES OF FORCE

Tensile and Compressive Forces

Friction

Centripetal Force

Centrifugal Force

Summary**Group Discussion 2-1**

Module 2 Quiz 1: Force & Motion

Group Discussion 2-2

Module 2 Quiz 2: Static & Dynamic Forces**WEEK 3**

MODULE 3: Energy, Work, & Power*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK CLASSICAL PHYSICS*, Module 5

MODULE 5 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given necessary information about a system, CALCULATE the work performed and/or power produced or used by that system.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Energy

b. Potential energy

c. Kinetic energy

d. Work

e. Power

1.2 STATE the mathematical expression for:

a. Potential energy

b. Kinetic energy

c. Work

d. Power

1.3 For a mechanical system, CALCULATE energy, work, and power.

1.4 STATE the First Law of Thermodynamics, "Conservation of Energy."

ENERGY AND WORK

Energy

Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

Thermal Energy

Mechanical Energy

Work

Summary

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Conservation of Energy

Summary

POWER

Power

Thermal Power

Mechanical Power

Summary**Group Discussion 3**

Module 3 Quiz: Energy & Work

WRITTEN DISCUSSION 1 DUE**WEEK 4**

MODULE 4: Atomic & Nuclear Physics*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND REACTOR THEORY*, VOLUME 1 OF 2, Module 1

MODULE 1 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

Given sufficient information, DESCRIBE atoms, including components, structure,

and nomenclature.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 STATE the characteristics of the following atomic particles, including mass, charge, and location within the atom:

a. Proton

b. Neutron

c. Electron

1.2 DESCRIBE the Bohr model of an atom.

1.3 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Nuclide

b. Isotope

c. Atomic number

d. Mass number

1.4 Given the standard (_Z^A)X notation for a particular nuclide, DETERMINE the following:

a. Number of protons

b. Number of neutrons

c. Number of electrons

1.5 DESCRIBE the three forces that act on particles within the nucleus and affect the stability of the nucleus.

1.6 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Enriched uranium

b. Depleted uranium

1.7 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Mass defect

b. Binding energy

1.8 Given the atomic mass for a nuclide and the atomic masses of a neutron, proton, and

electron, CALCULATE the mass defect and binding energy of the nuclide.

ATOMIC NATURE OF MATTER

Structure of Matter

Subatomic Particles

Bohr Model of the Atom

Measuring Units on the Atomic Scale

Nuclides

Isotopes

Atomic and Nuclear Radii

Nuclear Forces

Summary

CHART OF THE NUCLIDES

Chart of the Nuclides

Information for Stable Nuclides

Information for Unstable Nuclides

Neutron - Proton Ratios

Natural Abundance of Isotopes

Enriched and Depleted Uranium

Summary

MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY

Mass Defect

Binding Energy

Energy Levels of Atoms

Energy Levels of the Nucleus

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

Given necessary references, DESCRIBE the various modes of radioactive decay.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

2.1 DESCRIBE the following processes:

a. Alpha decay

b. Beta-minus decay

c. Beta-plus decay

d. Electron capture

e. Internal conversions

f. Isomeric transitions

2.2 Given a Chart of the Nuclides, WRITE the radioactive decay chain for a nuclide.

2.3 EXPLAIN why one or more gamma rays typically accompany particle emission.

2.4 Given the stability curve on the Chart of the Nuclides, DETERMINE the type of

radioactive decay that the nuclides in each region of the chart will typically undergo.

2.5 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Radioactivity

b. Curie

c. Becquerel

d. Radioactive decay constant

e. Radioactive half-life

2.6 Given the number of atoms and either the half-life or decay constant of a nuclide,

CALCULATE the activity.

2.7 Given the initial activity and the decay constant of a nuclide, CALCULATE the activity at any later time.

2.8 CONVERT between the half-life and decay constant for a nuclide.

2.9 Given the Chart of the Nuclides and the original activity, PLOT the radioactive decay

curve for a nuclide on either linear or semi-log coordinates.

2.10 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Radioactive equilibrium

b. Transient radioactive equilibrium

MODES OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY

Stability of Nuclei

Natural Radioactivity

Nuclear Decay

Alpha Decay (α)

Beta Decay (β)

Electron Capture (EC, K-capture)

Gamma Emission (γ)

Internal Conversion

Isomers and Isomeric Transition

Decay Chains

Predicting Type of Decay

Summary

RADIOACTIVITY

Radioactive Decay Rates

Units of Measurement for Radioactivity

Variation of Radioactivity Over Time

Radioactive Half-Life

Plotting Radioactive Decay

Radioactive Equilibrium

Transient Radioactive Equilibrium

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

3.0 Without references, DESCRIBE the different nuclear interactions initiated by neutrons.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

3.1 DESCRIBE the following scattering interactions between a neutron and a nucleus:

a. Elastic scattering

b. Inelastic scattering

3.2 STATE the conservation laws that apply to an elastic collision between a neutron and a nucleus.

3.3 DESCRIBE the following reactions where a neutron is absorbed in a nucleus:

a. Radiative capture

b. Particle ejection

NEUTRON INTERACTIONS

Scattering

Elastic Scattering

Inelastic Scattering

Absorption Reactions

Radiative Capture

Particle Ejection

Fission

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

4.0 Without references, DESCRIBE the fission process.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

4.1 EXPLAIN the fission process using the liquid drop model of a nucleus.

4.2 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Excitation energy

b. Critical energy

4.3 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Fissile material

b. Fissionable material

c. Fertile material

4.4 DESCRIBE the processes of transmutation, conversion, and breeding.

4.5 DESCRIBE the curve of Binding Energy per Nucleon versus mass number and give a

qualitative description of the reasons for its shape.

4.6 EXPLAIN why only the heaviest nuclei are easily fissioned.

4.7 EXPLAIN why uranium-235 fissions with thermal neutrons and uranium-238 fissions only with fast neutrons.

4.8 CHARACTERIZE the fission products in terms of mass groupings and radioactivity.

4.9 Given the nuclides involved and their masses, CALCULATE the energy released from fission.

4.10 Given the curve of Binding Energy per Nucleon versus mass number, CALCULATE the energy released from fission.

NUCLEAR FISSION

Fission

Liquid Drop Model of a Nucleus

Critical Energy

Fissile Material

Fissionable Material

Fertile Material

Binding Energy Per Nucleon (BE/A)

Summary

ENERGY RELEASE FROM FISSION

Calculation of Fission Energy

Estimation of Decay Energy

Distribution of Fission Energy

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

5.0 Without references, DESCRIBE how the various types of radiation interact with matter.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

5.1 DESCRIBE interactions of the following with matter:

a. Alpha particle

b. Beta particle

c. Positron

d. Neutron

5.2 DESCRIBE the following ways that gamma radiation interacts with matter:

a. Compton scattering

b. Photoelectric effect

c. Pair production

INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER

Interaction of Radiation with Matter

Alpha Radiation

Beta Minus Radiation

Positron Radiation

Neutron Radiation

Gamma Radiation

Summary**Interactive Courseware**

Group Discussion 4

Module 4 Quiz: Atomic & Nuclear Physics**WEEK 5**

MODULE 5: Reactor Theory (Neutron Characteristics)*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND REACTOR THEORY*, VOLUME 1 OF 2, Module 2

MODULE 2 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

Without references, EXPLAIN how neutron sources produce neutrons.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Intrinsic neutron source

b. Installed neutron source

1.2 LIST three examples of reactions that produce neutrons in intrinsic neutron sources.

1.3 LIST three examples of reactions that produce neutrons in installed neutron sources.

NEUTRON SOURCES

Neutron Sources

Intrinsic Neutron Sources

Installed Neutron Sources

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

2.0 Given the necessary information for calculations, EXPLAIN basic concepts in reactor

physics and perform calculations.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

2.1 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Atom density

b. Neutron flux

c. Microscopic cross section

d. Barn

e. Macroscopic cross section

f. Mean free path

2.2 EXPRESS macroscopic cross section in terms of microscopic cross section.

2.3 DESCRIBE how the absorption cross section of typical nuclides varies with neutron

energy at energies below the resonance absorption region.

2.4 DESCRIBE the cause of resonance absorption in terms of nuclear energy levels.

2.5 DESCRIBE the energy dependence of resonance absorption peaks for typical light and heavy nuclei.

2.6 EXPRESS mean free path in terms of macroscopic cross section.

2.7 Given the number densities (or total density and component fractions) and microscopic cross sections of components, CALCULATE the macroscopic cross section for a mixture.

2.8 CALCULATE a macroscopic cross section given a material density, atomic mass, and

microscopic cross section.

2.9 EXPLAIN neutron shadowing or self-shielding.

2.10 Given the neutron flux and macroscopic cross section, CALCULATE the reaction rate.

2.11 DESCRIBE the relationship between neutron flux and reactor power.

2.12 DEFINE the following concepts:

a. Thermalization

b. Moderator

c. Moderating ratio

d. Average logarithmic energy decrement

e. Macroscopic slowing down power

2.13 LIST three desirable characteristics of a moderator.

2.14 Given an average fractional energy loss per collision, CALCULATE the energy loss after a specified number of collisions.

NUCLEAR CROSS SECTIONS AND NEUTRON FLUX

Introduction

Atom Density

Cross Sections

Mean Free Path

Calculation of Macroscopic Cross Section and Mean Free Path

Effects of Temperature on Cross Section

Neutron Flux

Self-Shielding

Summary

REACTION RATES

Reaction Rates

Reactor Power Calculation

Relationship Between Neutron Flux and Reactor Power

Summary

NEUTRON MODERATION

Neutron Slowing Down and Thermalization

Macroscopic Slowing Down Power

Moderating Ratio

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

3.0 Without references, EXPLAIN the production process and effects on fission of prompt and delayed neutrons.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

3.1 STATE the origin of prompt neutrons and delayed neutrons.

3.2 STATE the approximate fraction of neutrons that are born as delayed neutrons from the fission of the following nuclear fuels:

a. Uranium-235

b. Plutonium-239

3.3 EXPLAIN the mechanism for production of delayed neutrons.

3.4 EXPLAIN prompt and delayed neutron generation times.

3.5 Given prompt and delayed neutron generation times and delayed neutron fraction,

CALCULATE the average generation time.

3.6 EXPLAIN the effect of delayed neutrons on reactor control.

PROMPT AND DELAYED NEUTRONS

Neutron Classification

Neutron Generation Time

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

4.0 Without references, DESCRIBE the neutron energy spectrum for the type of reactor

presented in this module.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

4.1 STATE the average energy at which prompt neutrons are produced.

4.2 DESCRIBE the neutron energy spectrum in the following reactors:

a. Fast reactor

b. Thermal reactor

4.3 EXPLAIN the reason for the particular shape of the fast, intermediate, and slow energy regions of the neutron flux spectrum for a thermal reactor.

NEUTRON FLUX SPECTRUM

Prompt Neutron Energies

Thermal and Fast Breeder Reactor Neutron Spectra

Most Probable Neutron Velocities

Summary**Interactive Courseware**

Module 5 Quiz: Neutron Characteristics**WEEK 6**

MODULE 6: Reactor Theory (Nuclear Parameters)*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND REACTOR THEORY*, VOLUME 2 OF 2, Module 3

MODULE 3 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Using appropriate references, DESCRIBE the neutron life cycle discussed in this

module.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Infinite multiplication factor, k

b. Effective multiplication factor, keff

c. Subcritical

d. Critical

e. Supercritical

1.2 DEFINE each term in the six factor formula using the ratio of the number of neutrons

present at different points in the neutron life cycle.

1.3 Given the macroscopic cross sections for various materials, CALCULATE the thermal utilization factor.

1.4 Given microscopic cross sections for absorption and fission, atom density, and ,

CALCULATE the reproduction factor.

1.5 Given the numbers of neutrons present at the start of a generation and values for each

factor in the six factor formula, CALCULATE the number of neutrons that will be

present at any point in the life cycle.

1.6 LIST physical changes in the reactor core that will have an effect on the thermal

utilization factor, reproduction factor, or resonance escape probability.

1.7 EXPLAIN the effect that temperature changes will have on the following factors:

a. Thermal utilization factor

b. Resonance escape probability

c. Fast non-leakage probability

d. Thermal non-leakage probability

1.8 Given the number of neutrons in a reactor core and the effective multiplication factor,

CALCULATE the number of neutrons present after any number of generations.

1.9 DEFINE the term reactivity.

1.10 CONVERT between reactivity and the associated value of keff.

1.11 CONVERT measures of reactivity between the following units:

a. k/k

b. %k/k

c. 10-4 k/k

d. Percent millirho (pcm)

1.12 EXPLAIN the relationship between reactivity coefficients and reactivity defects.

NEUTRON LIFE CYCLE

Infinite Multiplication Factor, k∞

Four Factor Formula

Fast Fission Factor, (ε)

Resonance Escape Probability, (p)

Thermal Utilization Factor, (f)

Reproduction Factor, (η)

Effective Multiplication Factor

Fast Non-Leakage Probability (ℒf)

Thermal Non-Leakage Probability (ℒt)

Six Factor Formula

Neutron Life Cycle of a Fast Reactor

Summary

REACTIVITY

Application of the Effective Multiplication Factor

Reactivity

Units of Reactivity

Reactivity Coefficients and Reactivity Defects

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

2.0 From memory, EXPLAIN how reactivity varies with the thermodynamic properties of

the moderator and the fuel.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

2.1 EXPLAIN the conditions of over moderation and under moderation.

2.2 EXPLAIN why many reactors are designed to be operated in an under moderated

condition.

2.3 STATE the effect that a change in moderator temperature will have on the moderator to fuel ratio.

2.4 DEFINE the temperature coefficient of reactivity.

2.5 EXPLAIN why a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity is desirable.

2.6 EXPLAIN why the fuel temperature coefficient is more effective than the moderator

temperature coefficient in terminating a rapid power rise.

2.7 EXPLAIN the concept of Doppler broadening of resonance absorption peaks.

2.8 LIST two nuclides that are present in some types of reactor fuel assemblies that have

significant resonance absorption peaks.

2.9 DEFINE the pressure coefficient of reactivity.

2.10 EXPLAIN why the pressure coefficient of reactivity is usually negligible in a reactor

cooled and moderated by a subcooled liquid.

2.11 DEFINE the void coefficient of reactivity.

2.12 IDENTIFY the moderator conditions under which the void coefficient of reactivity

becomes significant.

REACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS

Moderator Effects

Moderator Temperature Coefficient

Fuel Temperature Coefficient

Pressure Coefficient

Void Coefficient

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

3.0 Without references, DESCRIBE the use of neutron poisons.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

3.1 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Burnable poison

b. Non-burnable poison

c. Chemical shim

3.2 EXPLAIN the use of burnable neutron poisons in a reactor core.

3.3 LIST the advantages and disadvantages of chemical shim over fixed burnable poisons.

3.4 STATE two reasons why fixed non-burnable neutron poisons are used in reactor cores.

3.5 STATE an example of a material used as a fixed non-burnable neutron poison.

NEUTRON POISONS

Fixed Burnable Poisons

Soluble Poisons

Non-Burnable Poisons

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

4.0 Without references, DESCRIBE the effects of fission product poisons on a reactor.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

4.1 LIST two methods of production and two methods of removal for xenon-135 during

reactor operation.

4.2 STATE the equation for equilibrium xenon-135 concentration.

4.3 DESCRIBE how equilibrium xenon-135 concentration varies with reactor power level.

4.4 DESCRIBE the causes and effects of a xenon oscillation.

4.5 DESCRIBE how xenon-135 concentration changes following a reactor shutdown from steady-state conditions.

4.6 EXPLAIN the effect that pre-shutdown power levels have on the xenon-135

concentration after shutdown.

4.7 STATE the approximate time following a reactor shutdown at which the reactor can be considered "xenon free."

4.8 EXPLAIN what is meant by the following terms:

a. Xenon precluded startup

b. Xenon dead time

4.9 DESCRIBE how xenon-135 concentration changes following an increase or a decrease in the power level of a reactor.

4.10 DESCRIBE how samarium-149 is produced and removed from the reactor core during reactor operation.

4.11 STATE the equation for equilibrium samarium-149 concentration.

4.12 DESCRIBE how equilibrium samarium-149 concentration varies with reactor power

level.

4.13 DESCRIBE how samarium-149 concentration changes following a reactor

shutdown from steady-state conditions.

4.14 DESCRIBE how samarium-149 concentration changes following a reactor startup.

4.15 STATE the conditions under which helium-3 will have a significant effect on the

reactivity of a reactor.

XENON

Fission Product Poisons

Production and Removal of Xenon-135

Xenon-135 Response to Reactor Shutdown

Xenon-135 Oscillations

Xenon-135 Response to Reactor Power Changes

Summary

SAMARIUM AND OTHER FISSION PRODUCT POISONS

Production and Removal of Samarium-149

Samarium-149 Response to Reactor Shutdown

Other Neutron Poisons

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

5.0 Without references, DESCRIBE how control rods affect the reactor core.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

5.1 DESCRIBE the difference between a "grey" neutron absorbing material and a "black"

neutron absorbing material.

5.2 EXPLAIN why a "grey" neutron absorbing material may be preferable to a "black"

neutron absorbing material for use in control rods.

5.3 EXPLAIN why resonance absorbers are sometimes preferred over thermal absorbers as a control rod material.

5.4 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Integral control rod worth

b. Differential control rod worth

5.5 DESCRIBE the shape of a typical differential control rod worth curve and explain the

reason for the shape.

5.6 DESCRIBE the shape of a typical integral control rod worth curve and explain the reason for the shape.

5.7 Given an integral or differential control rod worth curve, CALCULATE the reactivity

change due to a control rod movement between two positions.

5.8 Given differential control rod worth data, PLOT differential and integral control rod

worth curves.

CONTROL RODS

Selection of Control Rod Materials

Types of Control Rods

Control Rod Effectiveness

Integral and Differential Control Rod Worth

Rod Control Mechanisms

Summary**Interactive Courseware**

Module 6 Quiz: Neutron Life Cycle**WEEK 7**

MODULE 7: Reactor Theory (Reactor Operations)*DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND REACTOR THEORY*, VOLUME 2 OF 2, Module 4

MODULE 4 TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

1.0 Given the necessary information and equations, EXPLAIN how subcritical multiplication occurs.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1.1 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Subcritical multiplication

b. Subcritical multiplication factor

1.2 Given a neutron source strength and a subcritical system of known keff, CALCULATE

the steady-state neutron level.

1.3 Given an initial count rate and keff, CALCULATE the final count rate that will result

from the addition of a known amount of reactivity.

1.4 Given count rates vs. the parameter being adjusted, ESTIMATE the value of the

parameter at which the reactor will become critical through the use of a 1/M plot.

SUBCRITICAL MULTIPLICATION

Subcritical Multiplication Factor

Effect of Reactivity Changes on Subcritical Multiplication

Use of 1/M Plots

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

2.0 Given the necessary information and equations, DESCRIBE how power changes in a

reactor that is near criticality.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

2.1 DEFINE the following terms:

a. Reactor period

b. Doubling time

c. Reactor startup rate

2.2 DESCRIBE the relationship between the delayed neutron fraction, average delayed

neutron fraction, and effective delayed neutron fraction.

2.3 WRITE the period equation and IDENTIFY each symbol.

2.4 Given the reactivity of the core and values for the effective average delayed neutron

fraction and decay constant, CALCULATE the reactor period and the startup rate.

2.5 Given the initial power level and either the doubling or halving time, CALCULATE the power at any later time.

2.6 Given the initial power level and the reactor period, CALCULATE the power at any

later time.

2.7 EXPLAIN what is meant by the terms prompt drop and prompt jump.

2.8 DEFINE the term prompt critical.

2.9 DESCRIBE reactor behavior during the prompt critical condition.

2.10 EXPLAIN the use of measuring reactivity in units of dollars.

REACTOR KINETICS

Reactor Period (τ)

Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction

Effective Delayed Neutron Precursor Decay Constant

Prompt Criticality

Stable Period Equation

Reactor Startup Rate (SUR)

Doubling Time

Summary

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

3.0 Without references, EXPLAIN the concepts concerning reactor startup, operation, and

shutdown.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

3.1 EXPLAIN why a startup neutron source may be required for a reactor.

3.2 LIST four variables typically involved in a reactivity balance.

3.3 EXPLAIN how a reactivity balance may be used to predict the conditions under which the reactor will become critical.

3.4 LIST three methods used to shape or flatten the core power distribution.

3.5 DESCRIBE the concept of power tilt.

3.6 DEFINE the term shutdown margin.

3.7 EXPLAIN the rationale behind the one stuck rod criterion.

3.8 IDENTIFY five changes that will occur during and after a reactor shutdown that will

affect the reactivity of the core.

3.9 EXPLAIN why decay heat is present following reactor operation.

3.10 LIST three variables that will affect the amount of decay heat present following reactor shutdown.

3.11 ESTIMATE the approximate amount of decay heat that will exist one hour after a

shutdown from steady state conditions.

REACTOR OPERATION

Startup

Estimated Critical Position

Core Power Distribution

Power Tilt

Shutdown Margin

Operation

Temperature

Pressure

Power Level

Flow

Core Burnup

Shutdown

Decay Heat

Summary**Interactive Courseware**

FINAL EXAM

FUKUSHIMA DISASTER PAPER DUE

IED REPORT DUE

A. | Course Title: | Fundamentals of Nuclear Science |

B. | Course Number: | ENGT 223 - 10743 |

C. | Semester: | Spring 2019 |

D. | Days/Time: | Online |

E. | Credit Hours: | 3 |

F. | Instructor: | Yarger, Fred |

G. | Office: | none |

H. | Email Address: | fyarger@nmjc.edu |

I. | Office Phone: | none |

J. | Office Hours: | Virtual Monday: 8:00:00 AM-8:00:00 PM (MST);Virtual Tuesday: 8:00:00 AM-8:00:00 PM (MST);Virtual Wednesday: 8:00:00 AM-8:00:00 PM (MST);Virtual Thursday: 8:00:00 AM-8:00:00 PM (MST);Virtual Friday: 8:00:00 AM-8:00:00 PM (MST);Virtual Saturday: 8:00:00 AM-8:00:00 PM (MST);(770) 973-3369 (H) Between 8AM to 8PM (Mountain Time); Anytime in an emergency. |

K. | Time Zone: | Mountain Time |

L. | Prerequisite(s): | |

M. | Corequisite(s): | |

N. | Class Location: | Virtual |