Human Anatomy and Physiology II


  2. A. Course Title: Human Anatomy and Physiology II
    B. Course Number: BI 224A - 30227
    C. Semester: Fall 2019
    D. Days/Time: Online
    E. Credit Hours: 4
    F. Instructor: Hein, Nancy
    G. Office: none
    H. Email Address:
    I. Office Phone: none
    J. Office Hours: Virtual Monday: 7:15:00 AM-8:15:00 AM (MST);
    Virtual Tuesday: 7:15:00 AM-8:15:00 AM (MST);
    Virtual Thursday: 7:15:00 AM-8:15:00 AM (MST);
    Virtual Friday: 7:15:00 AM-8:15:00 AM (MST);
    Virtual hours: I am an adjunct and do not live in the Hobbs area. I am available through e-mail or by appointment via telephone. I will answer e-mails and respond within 24 hrs, typically quicker. I check messages throughout the day and in the evenings. I will periodically check for messages during the weekend. If you are enrolled in an on-line course please use Canvas e-mail within the course module. Use NMJC e-mail if you are not enrolled in a class. (w): 575-624-8175
    K. Time Zone: Mountain Time
    L. Prerequisite(s): BI 214A or consent of the instructor.
    M. Corequisite(s): BI224AL-061-30172
    N. Class Location: Virtual

    This course is a continuation of BI 214A. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, excretory, digestive systems, and reproductive systems are studied. This course is a prerequisite for nursing and recommended for pre-allied health students. Concurrent enrollment in BI 224A L (laboratory) is required. Prerequisite: BI 214A Human Anatomy & Physiology I or consent of the instructor


    For science and non-science majors, BI 224A will transfer to most two and four year colleges for credit as a laboratory life science. Information concerning articulation agreements with regional colleges and universities can be obtained at the NMJC Counseling Office. It is important to check with the institution to which you are planning to transfer to determine transferability. Planning for course credit transfer is ultimately the student’s responsibility. All students are encouraged to keep the course syllabus as it will help determine the transferability of this course credit to another institution.



    TEXTBOOK: Tortora, Gerard. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 14th or 15th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Access codes for WileyPlus may be included when you purchase a new book from the bookstore. The code is good for two semesters and include study diagnostics that help with content mastery. WileyPlus is an optional resource. The textbook available in NMJC's bookstore is ISBN: 978-1-1194-4797-9 for the 15th edition. *Please, see note below on various ISBN numbers.

    LAB MANUAL: UNUSED Allen, Connie & Harper, Valerie. Laboratory Manual For Anatomy and Physiology. 5th or 6th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. You will want to write in the lab manual, whether you buy the e-option and print the pages out or buy a hardcopy. The lab manual available in NMJC's bookstore is ISBN: 978-1-1193-0414-2 for the 6th edition.

    *There are multiple ISBN numbers for the textbook and lab manual and the publisher changes them frequently dependent on options. Use the author, title and edition as a guideline. There is not much change between editions.

    Textbook: hardcover (ISBN : 978-1-118-34500-9), loose-leaf (ISBN : 978-1-118-34439-2) or E-text (ISBN : 978-1-118-80897-9).

    Lab Manual: E-Text (ISBN : 978-1-118-80656-2), Loose-leaf (ISBN : 978-1-118-34440-8)

    Digital capture device such as a digital camera, computer cam or camera phone for submitting documentation of lab exercises

    Lab Materials:
    It is difficult to replace the face-time lab component with an on-line component. A large part of building an anatomy foundation is hands on. The following will supplement the lab. In a face-time lab you would spend three hours a week in lab and many anatomy class have optional open labs. It takes over three hours a week on a lab exercise to build confidence and competence. Labeling diagrams is not very useful if that’s all you do.

    Items to order:
    You may partner with another classmate on the dissection specimens if there is photographic
    documentation that you both worked on the specimens at the same time.

    There are several suppliers for dissection specimens. I have used the following companies but these are not a specific endorsements. Shipping will run around $10.00. Look for coupons on the Internet. At this time of the year there may be free shipping or 10% off coupons.

    Biological suppliers:
    Carolina Biological
    Wards Natural Science

    You will need to purchase the following as soon as possible. E-mail me if you need further clarification.

    1) Sheep heart – There are several options. One with a pericardium would be great but I opted for the one without for cost considerations
    2) Sheep brain – Again, there are options. One with dura mater intact but if there are restrictions with the company a brain without is fine. I chose this because the cranial nerves should be intact.
    3) Cow eye – A sheep eye will work but the cow eye is bigger and doesn’t cost much more.
    4) I included a scalpel and pair of dissecting scissors in the list but that would be optional. You may already have tools that would suffice.
    5) Disposable gloves. You can get these locally.
    6) Safety glasses. I noticed in an ad from one store this past week for $1.99.

    Items to buy locally:

    Non-hardening clay – 1 package of primary colors and 1 package of neutral/earthtone colors. Usually the packages have 4 colors, you need one that has red (arteries), blue (veins) with either yellow or green (lymphatic vessels and nodes). The science supply companies have it if you don’t want to track it down. It’s $3.05 a package from Nasco.

    Internet access to Canvas with a computer that has the rights to install Respondus, a lock-down browser. Canvas does not totally support Smart phones, iPads or tablets. A computer will be needed to complete many of the assignments.


    You can buy your books online at the NMJC Bookstore.


    Students attending New Mexico Junior College will be evaluated according to the following grading scale:

    						90 - 100%	=	A
    						80 -  89%	=	B
    						70 -  79%	=	C
    						60 -  69%	=	D
    					 	 0 -  59%	=	F

    Grades will be based on the following components:
    40% Textbook Component – The Textbook component includes exams (34%) and a discussion component (6%) submitted from the discussion board. Exams are computerized and are to be submitted via "Assessments" on or before the deadline. Unit exams have a four-day submission period. Exam material will cover textbook and laboratory exercise information. Individual feedback will be provided on exams when requested. It may take up to 48 hrs. for an item analysis to be generated. Discussion boards are typically graded within 48 hrs. of the posted due date. Rubrics are used to score discussion boards.

    40% Laboratory Component – The laboratory component is divided into 3 areas. Laboratory grades are generated from the lab exercise assessments, one lab practical(LM1/LM2/LM3) and documentation of laboratory activities. Lab points are earned with every lab and values will vary as detailed in each learning module. Individual feedback will be provided on lab exercise assessments when requested. It may take up to 48 hrs. for an item analysis to be generated. All laboratory activities will be graded within 48 hours of the posted due date with the exception of the lab report which may take longer. Rubrics are used to score lab activities.

    20% Comprehensive Proctored Final Exam – The final will be administered during finals week by NMJC’s testing center located in the Ben Alexander Building. If you are unable to come to campus, you must arrange for the final to be proctored by another credible testing center. NO EARLY administering of the final is permitted except in an emergency AND permission from the Dean must be granted. Students are solely responsible for any costs associated with using an alternative testing site. Remote proctoring is available from NMJC for a fee.

    LATE POLICY: Assignments must be submitted on or before the deadline to receive credit for lab work or lab assessments. Late lab work or lab assessments cannot be made up. If there are circumstances that you feel prevented you from completing the LM Exams, you need to contact me immediately. At the time you request an extension, attach documentation of your circumstances (screen shots, CanvasHelp desk details, hospital arm band, date stamped selfies, etc.) Only exams will be allowed for make-up. Should technical problems arise during the testing process (e.g. Canvas logs you off and you cannot regain entry into the exam or quiz), it is the student's responsibility to report the problem to the professor within 24-hours AND notify NMJC’s or 575.399.2199. Deadlines will be adjusted if NMJC experiences technical difficulties with its Canvas server for an extended period of time on the last day of deadlines.

    Retrieving Grades from T-BirdWeb Portal
    Go to the New Mexico Junior College T-BirdWeb Portal login page. Please enter your User Identification Number (ID), which is your Banner ID, and your Personal Identification Number (PIN). When finished, click Login.

    Tips for Success in Online Courses:
    1. Log in to class regularly.
    2. Pay attention.
    3. Take notes.
    4. Keep up with readings and assignments.
    5. Ask questions when you do not understand something.
    6. Utilize your professor’s office hours and e-mail.
    7. Read the text.
    8. Adhere to the deadlines posted in the course outline.


    New Mexico Junior College’s institutional student learning outcomes represent the knowledge and abilities developed by students attending New Mexico Junior College. Upon completion students should achieve the following learning outcomes along with specific curriculum outcomes for respective areas of study:


    New Mexico Junior College's broad range of science courses provides students with an opportunity to achieve their academic goals by fostering higher order thinking skills, basic academic success skills, discipline-specific knowledge and skills, and scientific and academic values.

    The course content of Anatomy & Physiology (Bi224A) supports NMJC's mission which is "promoting success through learning" by encouraging students to accomplish the following:

    1. Describe the process of scientific inquiry.
    2. Solve problems scientifically.
    3. Communicate scientific information.
    4. Apply quantitative analysis to scientific problems.
    5. Apply scientific thinking to real world problems.


    Upon completion of the course, students should be able to:

    Chapter 14: Brain and Cranial Nerves
    1. Evaluate the effectiveness of the cells, structures, and mechanisms which protect the central nervous system.
    2. Compare and contrast the four parts of the brain based on their structures and functions.
    3. Distinguish the divisions of the brain based on their functions.
    4. Map the locations and functions of sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.
    5. Define electroencephalogram and use an electroencephalogram to identify/differentiate the four different types of brain waves which can be used to evaluate brain function.
    6. Name the cranial nerves in order, and describe each of their functions and components.

    Chapter 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems
    1. Create models for the classification of sensory receptors, and list examples of each type of receptor.
    2. Describe the location and function of the receptors for tactile, thermal, pain, and proprioception.
    3. Compare and contrast the integrative cerebral functions of wakefulness and sleep, learning and memory.

    Chapter 17: Special Senses
    1. Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction.
    2. Describe the gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation.
    3. Design an experiment which demonstrates the association between olfaction and gestation.
    4. Explain how the accessory and lacrimal structures of the eye aid in the function of the eye.
    5. Correlate the steps, structures, and chemicals involved in the formation of a retinal image.
    6. Differentiate the three principal regions of the ear in terms of structures and functions, and correlate their roles in the physiology of hearing.
    7. Compare and contrast static and dynamic equilibrium, naming the structures and describing the mechanisms involved with each.

    Chapter 18: Endocrine System
    1. Distinguish between exocrine and endocrine glands in terms of structure and function.
    2. Compare and contrast nervous and endocrine regulation of body systems.
    3. Explain the general mechanisms of hormonal action, and the signal processes that can control hormone secretion.
    4. Name the glands of the endocrine system, categorizing their hormones according to their functions and target organs.
    5. Analyze how the endocrine system hormones work together to maintain homeostasis.

    Chapter 19: Cardiovascular System - Blood
    1. Describe the components of blood.
    2. Compare and contrast the formed elements of the blood in terms of their function, structure, appearance, and life span.
    3. Construct a flow chart which describes the mechanism for regulating the hemopoiesis.
    4. Construct a flow chart which demonstrates the stages of hemostasis, including the various factors which promote and inhibit coagulation.
    5. Design an experiment using red blood cells and anti-sera which could be used to differentiate blood groups based on the protein composition of erythrocytes.

    Chapter 20: Cardiovascular System - Heart
    1. Describe the structure of the pericardium.
    2. Compare and contrast the tissues of the heart wall based on their structure and functions.
    3. Explain how the structures/tissues of the heart match the functions of the different components of the heart.
    4. Discuss the external and internal anatomy of the chambers of the heart.
    5. Describe the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart, explaining how valves and their structures insure correct flow.
    6. Predict the effect of valve defects and improper venous return on the efficiency of heart action.
    7. Discuss coronary circulation, naming the major coronary arteries and predicting the effect of blockage of these arteries at a cellular and functional level.
    8. Differentiate the structural, functional, and nervous characteristics of cardiac muscle, and their roles in the contraction of cardiac muscle.
    9. Explain structural and functional features of the electrical conduction system of the heart.
    10. Correlate the patterns of electrocardiograms with the electrical events they represent, and the structural events which result from them.
    11. Interpret electrocardiograms which demonstrate different defects in the electrical conduction system of the heart.
    12. Explain the cause, diagnosis, and prevention of different types of heart disease.

    Chapter 21: Cardiovascular System – Blood Vessels/Hemodynamics
    1. Compare and contrast the structures and functions of components of the arterial circulation and components of the venous circulation.
    2. Define blood pressure, and differentiate between systolic and diastolic pressures and their meanings.
    3. Predict the effect of cardiac disease, compromised circulation, and different behaviors/activities on blood pressure.
    4. Design an experiment to measure or evaluate cardiac fitness.
    5. Describe the regulation of blood pressure.
    6. Describe mechanisms and factors that regulate blood flow to and from the heart.
    7. Naming the major blood vessels of the arterial and venous circulation systems, describe the organization of circulation into regions and subsystems.
    8. Correlate the chemical composition of blood and interstitial fluid with the pressures which result in the movement of molecules into and out of the blood.
    9. Explain the cause, diagnosis, and treatment of circulatory defects.
    10. Develop a model of behaviors and nutrition which would result in improved circulatory health.

    Chapter 22: Lymphatic System
    1. Describe the general components of the lymphatic system and their functions.
    2. Describe how lymphatic vessels are arranged in the body, and describe the formation and flow of lymph.
    3. List and describe the function of lymphatic organs and tissues.
    4. Describe the mechanisms of non-specific and specific resistance to disease.
    5. Compare and contrast a cell-mediated immune response and humoral immune response, naming the lymphocytes involved in each.

    Chapter 23: Respiratory System
    1. Differentiate between pulmonary ventilation, pulmonary respiration, tissue respiration, and cellular respiration.
    2. Describe the anatomy and histology of the structures of the upper and lower respiratory systems.
    3. Describe the processes and structures involved in the production of sound.
    4. Compare and contrast the events that cause inspiration and expiration.
    5. List and define the various lung volumes and capacities.
    6. Predict the tissue changes and effects produced by environmental factors on lung volumes.
    7. Describe the mechanisms and factors which regulate the rate and depth of respiration.
    8. Correlate the roles of the central nervous system, the circulatory system, and the respiratory system in maintaining homeostasis.

    Chapter 26: Urinary System
    1. List the functions of the kidneys.
    2. Differentiate the external, internal, and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys.
    3. Develop a flow chart which demonstrates the processes and structures involved in the formation of urine.
    4. Correlate the tissue/cellular structures of the kidneys with their roles in formation of urine.
    5. Correlate the chemical composition of the blood with the gradients that result in the production of urine.
    6. Describe the anatomy, histology, and physiology of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
    7. Explain the steps involved in the micturition reflex.

    Chapter 27: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis
    1. Compare the locations of intracellular and extracellular fluid, and describe the various fluid components of the body.
    2. Compare the electrolyte composition of the three major fluid compartments.
    3. Discuss how buffers, exhalation of CO2, and kidney excretion of H+ maintain the pH of body fluids.
    4. Define acid-base balance, describe four major types of imbalances, their possible causes, and their effects on the body.
    5. Explain how the circulatory, respiratory, and excretory systems work together to maintain proper acid-base balance within the body’s tissues and fluids.

    Chapter 24: Digestive System
    1. Classify the organs and accessory structures of the digestive system in terms of their anatomy, histology, and function.
    2. Describe the six basic processes performed by the digestive system and how the organs in which those functions are performed have structure which matches the process.
    3.Develop a diagram/map which demonstrates the regulation of the processes of and mechanisms involved in the chemical, mechanical, and hormonal regulation of digestion of food.

    Chapter 28: Reproductive Systems
    1. Relate how the organs and accessory glands of the male reproductive system are suited to the production, storage and transport of gametes.
    2. Explain the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis.
    3. Develop a flow chart to sequence the events which lead to the release of seminal fluid.
    4. Correlate the components of seminal fluid with their chemical roles in the transportation of sperm and fertilization of the egg.
    5. Relate how the organs and accessory organs of the female reproductive system are suited to the production and transport of ova, and the receipt of sperm.
    6. Explain the hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle.
    7. Compare the principle events of the ovarian and uterine cycles.
    8. Match the events of the female reproductive cycles with their roles in the preparation of the structures of the reproductive system for the development and gestation of a fertilized egg.


    Student Requirements
    If you have not already received login information for Canvas/T-BirdWeb Portal/E-mail, you will need to contact the Enrollment Management office at (575) 492-2546.

    Check first-time login page for instructions at

    Canvas Assistance

    You must have access, on a regular basis, to a computer that supports the Canvas minimum specifications and has an active connection to the Internet. See the minimum computer specification requirements at


    This is an online lecture/laboratory life science course geared for science and non-science majors. Canvas will be used to deliver course information for both the lecture/laboratory component. The design of the course correlates information presented in the textbook with the laboratory manual. Final course grade is a composite of both lecture and laboratory.

    All tests/lab assessments are submitted via Canvas. Modified laboratory activities are to be submitted as pdf files within Canvas.

    Should any questions arise during the semester, simply e-mail me and I will respond within 24 hours Monday thru Friday 12 noon. I do check mail periodically during the week-end and will do my best to respond in a timely manner.

    Learning Module Exams:
    There are four learning module exams. Pay close attention to deadlines for each exam. The learning module exams will contain multiple choice questions randomly selected from a test bank. Tests are timed and are open for a period of 75-minutes once accessed. Once an exam has been submitted for grading, it cannot be re-entered. Should technical problems arise during the testing process (e.g. Canvas logs you off and you cannot regain entry into the exam), it is the student's responsibility to report the problem to the professor within 24-hours AND notify NMJC’s or 575.399.2199

    Comprehensive Lecture/Lab Final:
    The final exam is proctored and may be taken either at NMJC's testing center located in the Ben Alexander Building or another reputable site. NMJC Testing Center offers free services to NMJC students and is located in the Ben Alexander Student Union Building. According to Testing Center policies, students must show proper picture ID and electronic devices are not allowed in the testing area.
    Below are the standard operating hours during final's week; however, it is strongly recommended that students confirm time of operation as they are subject to change:
    7:30 am - 7:00 pm Monday and Tuesday
    7:30 am - 5:00 pm Wednesday

    If an alternative, reputable testing site is to be used, information regarding the proposed site (e.g. Institution's name, address, phone number, and contact person) must be submitted by the student and approved by the instructor by midterm. Students are solely responsible for any costs associated with using an alternative testing site. Remote proctoring is available from NMJC for a fee.

    Discussion Board:
    Students are responsible for a discussion post related to each learning module. Modules 3 and 4 are combined. Posts on the discussion board make up 6% the textbook component.

    Lab Assignments/Quizzes:
    Even though students may not be able to actually perform all exercises, they are required to read/understand materials presented in the laboratory manual. After completion of each laboratory exercise, there is a laboratory assessment quiz. Some laboratory exercises are modified for the on-line learner and will require the purchase/use of additional materials. Directions for purchase of lab materials can be found within the “Orientation Module” on Canvas and are listed in the Required Material Section of the syllabus. It is expected that materials be purchased in a timely manner in order to submit assignments by the due date. Students who do not complete lab activities by the deadlines detailed in the Learning Modules will not receive full credit unless PRIOR arrangements have been made.


    Students will be held responsible for the information on these pages.

    Academic Honesty
    Each student is expected to maintain the highest standards of honesty and integrity in online academic and professional matters. The College reserves the right to take disciplinary action, up to and including dismissal, against any student who is found guilty of academic dishonesty or otherwise fails to meet these standards. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, dishonesty in quizzes, tests, or assignments; claiming credit for work not done or done by others; and nondisclosure or misrepresentation in filling out applications or other College records. Cheating or gaining illegal information for any type of graded work is considered dishonest and will be dealt with accordingly.

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Information
    Any student requiring special accommodations should contact the Special Needs Student Services Coordinator at (575) 492-2576 or by e-mail at

    Attendance Policy and Participation Expectations
    It is expected that you regularly log into class at least three times weekly and check your Canvas mail to ensure you have not missed any changes/updates. Students are expected to complete discussions/quizzes/tests/ assignments before deadlines expire.

    Canvas Help
    If you experience difficulty with Canvas you may reach the Canvas Helpdesk at, or by calling the 24 hour helpdesk phone at (575) 399-2199.

    The professor is responsible for monitoring and evaluating student conduct and student behavior within the Canvas course. By registering for this class, the student is assumed to have entered into an agreement with New Mexico Junior College and the professor to log into the class regularly and to behave in an appropriate manner at all times. Disruptive behavior may result in the student being removed from the class and dropped for the semester. For comprehensive information on the common rules of netiquette and other online issues, please review the NMJC Online Student Handbook.

    Online Learning Environment
    By participating in an online class, you undertake responsibility for your own progress and time management.

    Offering the work of another as one’s own, without proper acknowledgment, is plagiarism; therefore, any student who fails to give credit for quotations or essentially identical expression of material taken from books, encyclopedias, magazines and other reference works, or from the themes, reports, or other writings of a fellow student, is guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism violates the academic honesty policy and is considered cheating.

    Tutoring Assistance
    Free tutoring services are available to all NMJC students through Brainfuse and the Academic Success Center located at the Pannell Library on the 1st floor.

    Withdrawal Policy
    The instructor has the right to drop any student who has failed to log on to Canvas for two weeks or more, but it is not guaranteed that the instructor will drop you. If the student chooses to stop attending a class, he/she should withdraw from the class by accessing your student account in the T-Bird Web Portal at, or submitting the required paperwork to the Registrar’s Office by 5:00 p.m. on Tuesday, November 19, 2019. Failure to withdraw yourself from a course by this date may result in your receiving an “F” in the course. All students are encouraged to discuss their class status with the professor prior to withdrawing from the class.


    BI224 – Anatomy and Physiology II


    This is a skeleton outline for the semester.  Please, refer to the detailed Checklist for each learning module

    for due dates and lab documentations required.



    Lab Exercises & Lab Documentation Assignments

    Learning Module 1


    Ch 24 Digestive System

    Exercise 34 & 35

    Digestion of Starch Lab Report

    Clay modeling of the GI Tract


    Ch 28 Reproductive System

    Exercise 38 & 39


    Discussion Board (Combined LM3/LM4 & Exam


    Learning Module 2


    Ch 14 Brain

    Exercise 20 & 21


    Ch 14 Brain & Cranial Nerves

    Sheep Brain Dissection Documentation


    Ch 16 Sensory, Motor and Integrative Systems

    Ch 17 Special Senses

    Exercise 23

    Exercise 24

    Tactile Sensitivity Lab Report

    Cow Eye Dissection Documentation


    Ch 18 Endocrine System

    Exercise 25


    Discussion Board & Exam


    Learning Module 3


    Ch 19 Cardiovascular System – Blood

    Exercise 26


    Ch 20 Cardiovascular System – Heart

    Exercise 27 & 28

    Sheep Heart Dissection Documentation


    Ch 21 Blood Vessels

    Exercise 29 & 30

    Modeling Circulation of the Arm


    Ch 22.1 Lymphatic

    Exercise 31


    Discussion Board (Combined LM3 & LM4) & Exam


    Learning Module 4

    Lab Practical LM1, LM2 and LM3


    Ch 22 Immunity

    Ch 23 Respiratory System

    Exercise 32

    Bicarbonate Ion Formation Lab Report


    Ch 26 Urinary System

    Exercise 36 & 37


    Ch 27 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Homeostasis



    Discussion Board(Combined LM3 & LM4)& Exam


    Final's Week – Comprehensive Proctored Exam December 9-11, 2019