Human Anatomy and Physiology II


  2. A. Course Title: Human Anatomy and Physiology II
    B. Course Number: BI 224A - 10018
    C. Semester: Spring 2019
    D. Days/Time: M W 12:00:00 PM - 1:15:00 PM
    E. Credit Hours: 4
    F. Instructor: Davis, Heather
    G. Office: Heidel Hall (HH) 211
    H. Email Address:
    I. Office Phone: (575) 492-2809
    J. Office Hours: Monday: 10:00:00 AM-12:00:00 PM (MST);
    Tuesday: 8:30:00 AM-9:30:00 AM (MST); 11:00:00 AM-1:00:00 PM (MST);
    Wednesday: 10:00:00 AM-12:00:00 PM (MST);
    Thursday: 8:30:00 AM-9:30:00 AM (MST); 11:00:00 AM-1:00:00 PM (MST);
    Instructor will respond to e-mails within 24-hrs Monday thru Friday noon and is also available by appointment.
    K. Time Zone: Mountain Time
    L. Prerequisite(s): "C" or better in BI 214A
    M. Corequisite(s): BI224AL
    N. Class Location: HH203

    This course is a continuation of BI 214A. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, excretory, digestive systems, and reproductive systems are studied. This course is a prerequisite for nursing and recommended for pre-allied health students. Concurrent enrollment in BI 224A L (laboratory) is required. Prerequisite: BI 214A Human Anatomy & Physiology I or consent of the instructor


    For science and non-science majors, BI 224A will transfer to most two and four year colleges for credit as a laboratory life science. Information concerning articulation agreements with regional colleges and universities can be obtained at the NMJC Counseling Office. It is important to check with institution to which you are planning to transfer to determine transferability. Planning for course credit transfer is ultimately the student’s responsibility. All students are encouraged to keep the course syllabus as it will help determine the transferability of this course credit to another institution.



    TEXTBOOK: Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 15th ed. (2017), Tortora & Derrickson (ISBN 978-1-1194-4797-9).

    LAB MANUAL: Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology, 6th ed. (2017), by Allen & Harper. You must get this new UNUSED lab manual and you WILL write in it both semesters. (ISBN 9781119304142)

    INTERNET ACCESS: Materials for the course will be supplemented using Canvas.

    SCANTRONS: If used for assessments, the desired form is 882-E

    Latex Gloves: Students need to purchase gloves for dissections as the lab has limited amounts and sizes. We will be performing at least 5 dissections so you may bring them at the beginning of the semester and leave them in a box in the lab for your convenience. I would suggest having extra pairs in case they break as well.


    WileyPlus Access Code (may be included when you purchase a new book). The code is good for two semesters and includes study diagnostics that help with content mastery.

    You can buy your books online at the NMJC Bookstore.

    You can buy your books online at the NMJC Bookstore.


    The grading scale for this course is according to NMJC policy:
    A = 90-100%
    B = 80-89%
    C = 70-79%
    D = 60-69%
    F = 0-59%

    Grades will be calculated in the following:
    55% - Exams and Practicals
    15% - Comprehensive Lecture Final
    25% - Lab Assignments (Lab Reports/Review Sheets)
    5% - Lecture Participation

    Lecture Exams & Comprehensive Final
    Students are required to take exams during specified times which will be announced the week prior (see course outline for projected dates). Students are required to schedule an appointment with their instructor. Students, who fail to take an exam during the allotted time, will receive a zero for that exam. The majority of the tests are computerized. An ID is required. No electronics are to be taken into the testing area. Non-compliance of testing protocols may result in a zero for that exam along with other possible sanctions as described in NMJC Student Handbook. Lab practicals will be administered only during specified times, which will be announced the week prior (see course outline for projected dates). Students who fail to take a practical during the allotted time will receive a zero.

    A comprehensive lecture final will be administered in class on the date/time as stated in NMJCs fall course schedule. NO EARLY administering of the final is permitted except in an emergency AND permission from the Dean must be granted. If the final exam is not computerized, students will need to provide a scantron. To keep disruptions to a minimum during testing, students are requested to be on time and remain in the testing area until their test has been submitted (e.g. no bathroom breaks). No electronic devices are allowed.

    Lab practicals will be administered only during specified times, which will be announced the week prior (see course outline for projected dates). Students who fail to take a practical during the allotted time will receive a zero.

    Lab Assignments
    Lab activity points will be earned for every lab. Activity points will vary from completing reports or review sheets and practicals which will count as exams when calculating grades. The assessment activity will be announced at the beginning of each lab. Students who arrive late, leave early, or are absent from lab forfeit these points. Students who miss their regularly scheduled lab may make up lab during another lab session. However, students MUST obtain prior permission from the instructor AND there must be space available. Students arriving more than 10 minutes late for lab will be asked to attend another laboratory session.

    Lecture Participation
    Students will earn one (1) point for each classroom session. A roll sheet will be passed during each lecture session. When present, it is the student’s sole responsibility to sign-in and remain in class. Signing of another student’s name will be considered academic dishonesty. Students arriving late forfeit lecture participation points.

    NOTE: Students violating NMJCs Food and Drink policy and/or Cell Phone policy will forfeit lecture participation points or lab activity points for that class session.


    New Mexico Junior College’s institutional student learning outcomes represent the knowledge and abilities developed by students attending New Mexico Junior College. Upon completion students should achieve the following learning outcomes along with specific curriculum outcomes for respective areas of study:


    New Mexico Junior College's broad range of science courses provides students with an opportunity to achieve their academic goals by fostering higher order thinking skills, basic academic success skills, discipline-specific knowledge and skills, and scientific and academic values.

    The course content of Anatomy & Physiology (Bi224A) supports NMJC's mission which is "promoting success through learning" by encouraging students to accomplish the following:

    1. Describe the process of scientific inquiry.
    2. Solve problems scientifically.
    3. Communicate scientific information.
    4. Apply quantitative analysis to scientific problems.
    5. Apply scientific thinking to real world problems.


    BI 224A - A&P II

    Upon completion of the course, students should be able to:

    Chapter 14: Brain and Cranial Nerves
    1. Discuss the structures and mechanisms that protect the brain, which includes the meninges and the cerebral spinal fluid.
    2. Compare and contrast the four parts of the brain based on their structures and functions.
    3. Distinguish the divisions of the brain based on their functions.
    4. Map the locations and functions of sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.
    5. Define electroencephalogram and identify/differentiate the four different types of brain waves which can be used to evaluate brain function.
    6. Name the cranial nerves in order, and describe each of their functions.
    Chapter 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems
    1. Differentiate the different types of sensory receptors based on structure, function and location (such as tactile, thermal, pain and proprioception), and list examples of each.
    2. Explain the integrative cerebral functions of wakefulness and sleep, learning and memory.
    Chapter 17: Special Senses
    1. Describe the olfactory and gustatory receptors and their respective neural pathways.
    2. Preform an experiment which demonstrates the association between olfaction and gestation.
    3. Explain how the accessory and lacrimal structures of the eye aid in the function of the eye.
    4. Describe the pathway involved in the formation of a retinal image.
    5. Differentiate the three principal regions of the ear in terms of structures and functions, and explain their roles in the physiology of hearing.
    6. Compare and contrast static and dynamic equilibrium by naming the structures and describing the mechanisms involved.
    Chapter 18: Endocrine System
    1. Distinguish between exocrine and endocrine glands in terms of structure and function.
    2. Compare and contrast nervous and endocrine regulation of body systems.
    3. Explain the general mechanisms of hormonal action, and how hormonal secretion is controlled.
    4. Name the glands of the endocrine system, categorizing their hormones according to their functions and target organs.
    5. Analyze how the endocrine system hormones work together to maintain homeostasis.
    Chapter 19: Cardiovascular System – Blood
    1. Name the components of blood.
    2. Differentiate the formed elements of the blood by their function and structure.
    3. Discuss the mechanism for regulating hemopoiesis.
    4. Explain the stages of hemostasis, including the various factors which promote and inhibit coagulation.
    5. Differentiate blood groups based on ABO and Rh blood typing.
    Chapter 20: Cardiovascular System – Heart
    1. Differentiate the pericardium and tissues of the heart wall by their structure and function.
    2. Discuss anatomy of the heart.
    3. Trace the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart.
    4. Predict the effect of valve defects and improper venous return on the efficiency of heart action.
    5. Discuss coronary circulation, naming the major coronary arteries and veins. Predict the effects of blockage.
    6. Explain structural and functional features of the electrical conduction system of the heart.
    7. Correlate the patterns of electrocardiograms with the electrical events they represent.
    8. Interpret normal and abnormal electrocardiograms.
    9. Explain the cause, diagnosis, and prevention of different types of heart disease.
    Chapter 21: Cardiovascular System – Blood Vessels/Hemodynamics
    1. Compare and contrast the structures and function of blood vessels.
    2. Define blood pressure and differentiate between systolic and diastolic pressures.
    3. Predict the effect of various factors on blood pressure.
    4. Describe the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.
    5. Identify the major blood vessels.
    6. Compare and contrast the capillary exchange at the arteriole and venule ends.
    7. Explain various factors that contribute to the dysfunction of the circulatory system.
    Chapter 22: Lymphatic System
    1. Identify the components of the lymphatic system by structure and function.
    2. Describe how lymphatic vessels are arranged in the body, including the formation and flow of lymph.
    3. Describe the mechanisms of non-specific and specific resistance to disease.
    4. Compare and contrast a cell-mediated immune response and humoral immune response, including the lymphocytes involved.
    Chapter 23: Respiratory System
    1. Differentiate between pulmonary ventilation, pulmonary respiration, tissue respiration, and cellular respiration.
    2. Describe the anatomy and histology of the structures of the upper and lower respiratory systems.
    3. Describe the processes and structures involved in the production of sound.
    4. Compare and contrast the events that cause inspiration and expiration.
    5. Define and calculate the various lung volumes and capacities.
    6. Describe the mechanisms and factors which regulate the rate and depth of respiration.
    7. Explain various factors that contribute to the dysfunction of the respiratory system.
    8. Integrate the roles of the central nervous system and circulatory system with the respiratory system in maintaining homeostasis.
    Chapter 24: Digestive System
    1. Identify the organs and accessory structures of the digestive system based on structure and function.
    2. Describe the six basic processes performed by the digestive system including their locations.
    3. Discuss the chemical, mechanical, and hormonal regulation of digestion.
    Chapter 26: Urinary System
    1. Identify the organs of the urinary system based on structure and function.
    2. Trace the processes and structures involved in the formation of urine.
    3. Predict and interpret the results of a urinalysis.
    4. Explain the steps involved in the micturition reflex.
    Chapter 27: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis
    1. Compare the composition of intracellular and extracellular fluid.
    2. Discuss the factors that influence the pH of body fluids.
    3. Describe the four major types of acid/base imbalances, their possible causes, and their effects.
    4. Explain how the circulatory, respiratory, and excretory systems work together to maintain proper acid-base balance within the body.
    Chapter 28: Reproductive Systems
    1. Identify the organs and accessory glands of the male and female reproductive systems based on structure and function.
    2. Explain the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
    3. Outline the processes and structures involved in the production and release of seminal fluid.
    4. Compare the principle events of the ovarian and uterine cycles as it relates to fertilization and implantation of a zygote.


    Lecture: Traditional presentation supplemented by PowerPoint and other audio-visual materials; question/answer interaction with students; three (3) hours per week.

    Participation Policy: Attendance will be taken during each class session. Students arriving late will be counted absent. When present, it is the student’s sole responsibility to sign-in and remain in class in order to earn their participation points. Signing of another student’s name will be considered academic dishonesty. To reduce distractions during class time, please be on time and stay in class.

    Make-up Policy: Plans to attend an alternative lecture section needs to be pre-approved by the instructor(s). If the absence is college sponsored, BOTH the student and college sponsor are required to notify the instructor prior to his/her absence. Prior arrangements are expected to be made and (when possible) the work completed before the absence.

    Behavior Policy: Disruptive behavior may result in the student being requested to leave the lecture or laboratory session for that day. Disruptive behavior will be documented and if continues will be reported to the appropriate administrative personnel with sanctions requested using the guidelines set by NMJC policies and procedures. Disruptive behavior includes but is not limited to the following: coming to class late, leaving class early, eating in class, using cell phones/pagers, wearing ear buds, and/or conversing while the professor is instructing.

    Laboratory: Weekly testing of lab’s objectives. Heavy utilization of laboratory manual, models, preserved specimens, 2 X 2 slides, microscopy, computer models, and individualized exercises. Three (3) hours per week.

    Attendance: Every student enrolled in BI 214A is expected to attend each laboratory session. Students are encouraged to form work/study teams. (Please, no more than 4 per team). During lab, all team members are expected to maintain a learning environment and not be disruptive to others. Those who miss their regularly scheduled lab may make up lab during another lab session of that same week. However, students MUST obtain prior permission from the instructor AND there must be space available. Students arriving more than 10 minutes late and/or those who do not have their lab manual will be asked to attend another laboratory session.

    General Protocol:
    1. Sign-in upon arrival. At the beginning, there will be an introduction to the lab.
    2. Students are expected to remain in the laboratory for a time sufficient to perform the activities assigned. During lab, electronics are to be used for the sole purpose of study. Please do not consume any food or drink while in the lab or use cell phones.
    3. After the lab activities are complete, clean and put away any extra equipment that was used.
    4. Have the instructor check-off your lab manual.
    5. Submit your assignment before leaving.

    Lab Review Sheets: Review sheets are provided in your lab manual at the end of each exercise. These are to be completed during lab time and not PRIOR to the lab. Lab manuals will be checked before lab to make sure that the blanks are not filled in prior to class and for the students name on the front cover of the manual. In order to receive lab points, the completed lab must be checked and signed by the instructor.

    Lab Practicals: Students are expected to attend their regular lab session the week practicals are administered.

    Lab Safety: ALL students are required to attend a lab safety lecture and pass a safety quiz prior to performing any laboratory exercises. Laboratory safety guidelines are included in your laboratory manual. ALL accidents and injuries that occur during the lab are to be reported IMMEDIATELY to the professor - - - no matter how slight. Visitors are NOT PERMITTED in the lab without first obtaining permission from the lab instructor.

    Lab Assessment:Lab activity points will be earned during each lab session. The assessment method will be announced during each lab. To receive credit:

    Assignments and/or handouts are to be completed during lab and turned in upon completion before leaving the laboratory. Additionally, students forfeit these laboratory points if they do not attend their weekly lab, leave early, or are witnessed copying.

    Lab quizzes will cover material completed during the previous lab. Quizzes will be completed at the beginning of lab and in teams of no more than four students. If a student arrives late for lab, that student forfeits the right to work in a group and must complete the quiz on their own. Additionally, students will not be allowed to use any resources on the quiz.

    NOTE: Students violating NMJCs Food and Drink policy and/or Cell Phone policy will forfeit lecture participation points or lab activity points for that class session.


    Students will be held responsible for the information on these pages.

    Academic Honesty
    Each student is expected to maintain the highest standards of honesty and integrity in online academic and professional matters. The College reserves the right to take disciplinary action, up to and including dismissal, against any student who is found guilty of academic dishonesty or otherwise fails to meet these standards. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, dishonesty in quizzes, tests, or assignments; claiming credit for work not done or done by others; and nondisclosure or misrepresentation in filling out applications or other College records. Cheating or gaining illegal information for any type of graded work is considered dishonest and will be dealt with accordingly.

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Information
    Any student requiring special accommodations should contact the Special Needs Student Services Coordinator at (575) 492-2576 or by e-mail at

    Attendance Policy
    Attendance is required at every session of each course for which the student is enrolled. When unavoidable circumstances make attendance impossible, students must provide a satisfactory explanation of their absences to their professors. College-sponsored activities are considered excused absences and the appropriate sponsor of those students who will be absent from class will notify professors. Students having absences due to college-sponsored activities will need to make arrangements with the affected classes / professor to take care of required work; however, arrangements for make-ups should be made within a reasonable time frame, usually within one week of the absence. Regarding make-up work, absences due to late registration are considered the same as regular absences.

    Cell Phones/Pagers
    All cell phones and pagers must be turned off when the student is participating in any lecture, laboratory, or other learning activity.

    Classroom Conduct
    The professor is responsible for maintaining a class environment best suited for effective learning. By registering for this class, the student is assumed to have entered into an agreement with New Mexico Junior College and the professor to attend the class regularly and to behave in an appropriate manner at all times. Disruptive behavior may result in the student being removed from the class.

    Food and Drink Policy
    Food items and soft drinks may not be consumed in NMJC classrooms. Students are also discouraged from bringing food and drink items into the classroom even though these items remain in sealed packaging. Bottled water is permissible.

    No Children in the Classroom
    In order to adhere to instructional procedures as well as maintain the safety of children, NMJC’s policy of no children in the classrooms (lecture, lab, etc.) will be followed.

    Offering the work of another as one’s own, without proper acknowledgment, is plagiarism; therefore, any student who fails to give credit for quotations or essentially identical expression of material taken from books, encyclopedias, magazines and other reference works, or from the themes, reports, or other writings of a fellow student, is guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism violates the academic honesty policy and is considered cheating.

    Smoking/Use of Tobacco
    New Mexico Junior College is cognizant of the health hazards associated with smoking / use of tobacco for the smoker, as well as the non-smoker. In an effort to provide a healthy environment for students, employees, and others who may frequent the campus, NMJC prohibits smoking / use of tobacco inside any campus building or facility.

    Tutoring Assistance
    Free tutoring services are available to all NMJC students through Brainfuse and the Academic Success Center located at the Pannell Library on the 1st floor.

    Withdrawal Policy
    Regular, punctual attendance is required for all classes at NMJC. Although the professor has the right to drop any student who has missed the equivalent of 2 weeks of instruction (based on a 16 week semester) whether it’s a face to face, online, or a hybrid course, it is not guaranteed that the professor will drop the student. If the student chooses to stop attending a class, he/she should withdraw from the class by accessing your student account in the T-Bird Web Portal at, or submitting the required paperwork to the Registrar’s Office by 5:00 p.m. on Thursday, April 18, 2019. All students are encouraged to discuss their class status with the professor prior to withdrawing from the class.

  15. COURSE OUTLINE Textbook Material

    The course schedule is tentative and subject to change.




    Learning Module 1 Exam: Chapters 14 & 16; Labs 19-22

    Week 1

    16 Jan

    Chapter 14

    Introduction, Brain & Cranial Nerves

    MLK Holiday – Monday 1/15

    Lab Safety

    Exercise 19: Somatic Reflexes

    Exercise 22: ANS Structure & Function 

    Week 2

    21 Jan

    Chapter 14

    Brian & Cranial Nerves

    Exercise 20: Brain Structure & Function

    Week 3

    28 Jan

    Chapter 16

    Integrative Function

    Exercise 21: Cranial Nerves

    Exercise 23: General Senses (Activities 4-6)

    Learning Module 2 Exam: Chapters 17-18; Labs 23-25

    Week 3

    4 Feb

    Chapter 17

    Special Senses

    Exercise 23: General Senses

    Exercise 24: Special Senses (EYE)

    Week 4

    11 Feb

    Chapter 18

    Endocrine System

    Exercise 24: Special Senses

    Learning Module 3 Exam: Chapters 19-20; Labs 26-28

    Week 6

    18 Feb

    Chapter 19


    Exercise 25: Endocrine Structure & Function

    Week 7

    25 Feb

    Chapter 20

    Cardiovascular System (Heart)

    Exercise 26: Blood Components & Blood Tests

    Learning Module 4 Exam: Chapters 21-22; Labs 29-31

    Week 8

    4 March

    Chapter 21

    Cardiovascular System (Blood Vessels)

    Exercise 27: Heart Structure & Function

    Exercise 28: Cardiac Cycle

    Week 9

    11 March

    Chapter 22

    Lymph & Immunity

    Exercise 29: Blood Vessel Structure & Function

    Exercise 30:  Blood Vessel Identification

    Learning Module 5 Exam: Chapters 23-24, 26; Labs 32-34, 36-37

    Week 10

    18 March

    Chapter 23

    Respiratory System

    Exercises 31: Lymphatic System Structure & Immune System Function

    Week 11

    25 March

    Spring Break

    Spring Break

    Week 12

    1 April

    Chapter 24

    Digestive System

    Exercise 32: Respiratory System Structure & Function

    Exercise 33:  Pulmonary Ventilation

    Week 13

    8 April

    Chapter 26

    Urinary System

    Exercise 34: Digestive System Structure & Function

    Learning Module 6 Exam: Chapters 27-28; Labs 38-39

    Week 14

    15 April

    Chapter 27

    Acid/Base Balance


    Exercise 36: Urinary System Structure & Function

    Exercise 37: Urine Formation & Urinalysis

    Week 15

    22 April

    Chapter 28

    Reproductive System

    Exercise 38:  Male Reproductive System Structure & Function

    Exercise 39: Female Reproductive System Structure & Function

    Week 16

    29 April

    Final Review


    May 6-8

    Final Exam Comprehensive: MW 12:00 – May 6 @ 10:00-11:45

                                                 TuTh 9:30 – May 8 @ 10:00-11:45